Matheniko Wildlife Reserve is a protected area in Karamoja sub region of north eastern Uganda. It is among the most threatened protected conservation areas in Uganda, ranking in the 5th position.
Matheniko is a portion of the strip of the Karamoja protected areas as it stretches from Kidepo National Park down way via Bokora and Pian Upe Wildlife Reserves. The Reserve has its northeastern boundary to the Uganda-Kenya border. The reserve is at an elevation of between 1,070 and 1,830 meters or 3,510 and 6,000 feet above sea level.
Matheniko Wildlife Reserve falls into the Somalia-Masai Eco region of semi-desert savannah and shrub land. The average twelve-monthly rainwater in the Reserve is 670 millimeters with peaks in April, May and November. In line with tourism, The Uganda Wildlife Authority is vigorously endeavoring to develop the reserve’s infrastructure especially roads and accommodation facilities.
Wildlife found in the reserve comprises of the rare species like the lesser kudu, roan antelope, Bright’s gazelle, ostriches which are only found here and in the Kidepo Valley National Park. At the Loporokocho swamp, is where wildlife is concentrated? Bird species found here consist of Eastern Bronze-napped Pigeon, Hartlaub’s Turaco, Dusky Turtle Dove, Lemon Dove, African Hill Babbler, Black-throated Wattle-eye, Alpine Chat, Thick-billed Honey guide, Mountain Yellow Warbler and the Grey Cuckoo-Shrike among the many.
The Rock paintings seen at several sites in Matheniko and Bokora Wildlife Reserve are assumed to date back about 3000 years and were the works of the Nilotic people and Kushites.