Hot Springs of Uganda

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earths crust. There are geothermal hot springs in many locations all over the crust of the earth, while some of these springs contain water that is a safe temperature for bathing, others are so hot that immersion can result in injury or death. The water temperature of a hot spring is usually 6.5 °C or more above mean air temperature, note that by this definition, thermal spring is not synonymous with the term hot spring a spring whose hot water is brought to the surface. The water temperature of the spring is usually 8.3 °C or more above the air temperature. A spring with water above the human body temperature –36.7 °C. suggest that the phrase warm spring is not useful. In general, the temperature of rocks within the earth increases with depth, the rate of temperature increase with depth is known as the geothermal gradient. If water percolates deeply enough into the crust, it will be heated as it comes into contact with hot rocks, the water from hot springs in non-volcanic areas is heated in this manner. In active volcanic zones such as Yellowstone National Park, water may be heated by coming into contact with magma, the high temperature gradient near magma may cause water to be heated enough that it boils or becomes superheated. If the water becomes so hot that it builds steam pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of the Earth, if the water only reaches the surface in the form of steam, it is called a fumarole. If the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is called a mud pot, note that hot springs in volcanic areas are often at or near the boiling point. People have been seriously scalded and even killed by accidentally or intentionally entering these springs, Warm springs are sometimes the result of hot and cold springs mixing. They may occur within an area or outside of one. One example of a warm spring is Warm Springs, Georgia. Hot springs range in flow rate from the tiniest seeps to veritable rivers of hot water, sometimes there is enough pressure that the water shoots upward in a geyser, or fountain. There are many claims in the literature about the rates of hot springs. It should be noted there are many more high flow non-thermal springs than geothermal springs. For example, there are 33 recognized magnitude one springs (having a flow in excess of 2,800 L/s in Florida alone, silver Springs, Florida has a flow of more than 21,000 L/s. Springs with high flow rates include, The Excelsior Geyser Crater in Yellowstone National Park yields about 4,000 U. S. gal/min



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